Potassium fluoride,anhydrous
           Potassium fluoride,extra pure
           Potassium fluoride,Granular
           Silicon Dioxide
           Hydrofluoric acid
           Synthetic Cryolite
           Potassium Fluoaluminate
           Ammonium bifluoride
           Potassium Bifluoride
           Aluminium fluoride
           Sodium fluoride
           Potassium Fluorosilicate
           Fluorosilicic Acid
           Sodium silicofluoride
           Potassium Hydroxide Flakes
           Magnesium Fluoride
           Magnesium fluorosilicate
           Barium Fluoride
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Fluoride-modification of dental titanium (Ti) implants is used to improve peri-implant bone growth and bone-to-implant contact and adhesion strength. In this study, the surface topography, chemistry and biocompatibility of polished Ti surfaces treated with hydrofluoric acid solution (HF) were studied. Murine osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) were cultured on the different groups of Ti surfaces. Surfaces treated with HF had higher roughness, lower cytotoxicity level and better biocompatibility than controls. For short treatment times (40 and 90 s), fluorine was detected only within the first 5 nm of the surface layer (X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy, XPS), whereas longer treatment time (120 and 150 s) caused fluoride ions to penetrate deeper (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, SIMS). These results suggest that submerging Ti implants in a weak HF solution instigate time-dependant specific surface changes that are linked to the improved biocompatibility of these surfaces.