Potassium fluoride,anhydrous
           Potassium fluoride,extra pure
           Potassium fluoride,Granular
           Silicon Dioxide
           Hydrofluoric acid
           Synthetic Cryolite
           Potassium Fluoaluminate
           Ammonium bifluoride
           Potassium Bifluoride
           Aluminium fluoride
           Sodium fluoride
           Potassium Fluorosilicate
           Fluorosilicic Acid
           Sodium silicofluoride
           Potassium Hydroxide Flakes
           Magnesium Fluoride
           Magnesium fluorosilicate
           Barium Fluoride
           More
 
  News Center

We investigate the nucleation behavior in the electroless displacement deposition of metal particles (Pt, Rh, Pd, Cu, Ag, and Au) onto n-Si wafers from a metal-salt solution containing hydrofluoric acid. The particle density of metals varies widely from 106 (Pt) to 1011 (Au) cm2, depending on the kind of metal. Deposited metals can be classified into two types of nucleation behavior. One consists of the platinum group elements, including Pt, Rh, and Pd, which display lower particle densities than elements of the other group and depend on the type of pretreatment of the n-Si wafer, and thus the surface conditions of Si. The second group consists of the copper group elements, including Cu, Ag, and Au, which display higher particle density than the first group and are independent of pretreatment. The size of deposited particles decreases from hundreds nm to tens nm as the particle density increases. Moreover, the displacement deposition of the Pt and Ag particles onto n-Si are in progressive and instantaneous nucleation modes, respectively.