Potassium fluoride,anhydrous
           Potassium fluoride,extra pure
           Potassium fluoride,Granular
           Potassium Fluoaluminate
           Potassium Bifluoride
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Potassium Fluoride

Potassium fluoride 3D ionic

Product Name: Potassium Fluoride
Synonyms: Anhydrous Potassium Fluoride
CAS NO.: 7789-23-3
Molecular Weight: 58.10
Molecular Formula: KF
CBNumber: CB4237549
Saturated vapor pressure (kPa):133.3Pa (885 DEG C)
Solubility: soluble in water, hydrofluoric acid, liquid ammonia, insoluble in alcohol.
Solubility in water: 44.7g/0 DEG C; 53.5g/10 DEG C; 94.9g/20 DEG C; 108g/30 DEG C; 138g/40 DEG C; 142g/60 DEG C; 150g/80 DEG C;
Single isotope mass: 57.96211 Da
Nominal mass: 58 Da
Average quality: 58.0967 Da
Usage: In the metal finishing, batteries, coatings, photographic chemicals, industrial chemicals. Package: Our potassium fluoride is packaged with aluminum foil bag (20kg/bag) or cardboard drum (75kg/drum), or will be packed upon clients’ requests.

Type of Potassium Fluoride: Potassium fluoride(spray dried).99.5% Min; Potassium fluoride(Granular),99.5% Min; Potassium fluoride,40% solution

Package: 1)20 kg /aluminum foil bag or 75kg/drum (for spray dried KF) 2)25 kg /aluminum foil bag or 25 kg/drum (for Granular KF) 3)1000 L/drum or 20 MT/ISO Tank (for KF,40% solution) Xinxiang Yellow River Fine Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. is the largest manufacturer of Potassium Fluoride in the world. We produce the full series of Potassium Fluoride including spray dried KF, granular KF and KF solution.

2. Basic Information
Potassium Fluoride, with its CAS registry number 7789-23-3, has other name of Fluorure de potassium. With its molecular formula of KF and molecular weight of 58.1, it has its EINECS number of 232-151-5. Being a kind of crystalline powder with melting point of 858℃, boiling point of 1505℃, KF is soluble in hydrofluoric acid and liquid ammonia while slightly soluble in alcohol and acetone.
Potassium Fluoride has two hydrate compounds, KF•2H2O and KF•4H2O. With a good solubility in water, it absorbs moisture easily, so this chemical shall be stored in sealed container. When comes to its storage, it should be kept in a tightly closed container in a cool, dry, ventilated area, away from acids and alkalis. Besides, this chemical is incompatible with platinum plus bromine trifluoride, and it could react with strong acids to form hydrogen fluoride.
In addition, Potassium Fluoride is widely applied in various fields. KF is a commen raw material for inorganic fluorine industry and can widely be used in the production of agrochemical and pharmaceutical intermediates. KF is also used as metal surface treatment products in electronic industry. In fluorine deficiency area, KF is added to the table salt as a kind of food additive. Moreover, KF can be used in the production of flux products, and also used as preservative, catalyzer and water absorbing agent.

1). Properties
The other characteristics of Potassium Fluoride (CAS NO.: 7789-23-3) can be summarized as: (1). Specific Gravity: 0.3-0.6; (2) Boiling Point: 1505℃ (2741F); (4) Melting Point: 860℃ (1580F); (5) Vapor Density (Air=1): 2.0.

2). Preparation and Use
Preparation: Potassium Fluoride could be produced through the neutralization method, with the following chemical equation:KOH+HF→KF+H2O.
Use: Potassium Fluoride is widely applied in the preparation for various kinds of organic fluoride. For example, KF could used to promote the processing of the following carbonyl-coupling reaction:

3). Hazard identification of Potassium Fluoride and its according first aid measures:
Hazard identification of Potassium Fluoride are as below:
Skin Contact: Causes severe irritation and possibly burns to the skin. May be absorbed through the skin. Effects may not appear immediately.
Eye Contact: Causes irritation. May be extremely irritating with possible burns to eye tissue and permanent eye damage may result.
Inhalation: May cause irritation and burns to the respiratory tract. May be absorbed through inhalation of dust. Irritation and burning effects may not appear immediately.
Ingestion: May cause salivation, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain, followed by weakness, tremors, shallow respiration, cardopedal spasm, convulsions, and coma. May cause brain and kidney damage. Death may be caused by respiratory paralysis. Affects heart and circulatory system.
Chronic Exposure: Chronic exposure may cause mottling of teeth and bone damage (osteosclerosis) and fluorosis. Symptoms of fluorisis include brittle bones,weight loss, anemia, calcified ligaments, general ill health and joint stiffness.
Aggravation of Pre-existing Conditions: Populations that appear to be at increased risk from the effects of fluoride are individuals that suffer from diabetes insipidus or some forms of renal impairment.

First aid procedures for contacting Potassium Fluoride should be pre-planned for fluoride compound emergencies.
Skin Contact: Promptly wash with soap and water, rinsing until clean. Remove contaminated clothing and wash before reuse. CALL A PHYSICIAN IMMEDIATELY.
Eye Contact: Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, lifting lower and upper eyelids occasionally. Get medical attention immediately.
Inhalation: If inhaled, remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. CALL A PHYSICIAN IMMEDIATELY.
Ingestion: Administer milk, chewable calcium carbonate tablets or milk of magnesia. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. CALL A PHYSICIAN IMMEDIATELY.
Note to Physician: For large exposures, systemic effects (hypocalcemia and hypomagnesia) may occur. Potassium can reduce blood pressure and cause coma.

4). Exposure Controls/Personal Protection
The exposure controls and personal protection of Potassium Fluoride are as below:
Airborne Exposure Limits: - OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL): 2.5 mg (F)/m3 (TWA) - ACGIH Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 2.5 mg (F)/m3 (TWA)
Ventilation System: A system of local and/or general exhaust is recommended to keep employee exposures below the Airborne Exposure Limits. Local exhaust ventilation is generally preferred because it can control the emissions of the contaminant at its source, preventing dispersion of it into the general work area. Please refer to the ACGIH document, Industrial Ventilation, A Manual of Recommended Practices, most recent edition, for details.
Personal Respirators (NIOSH Approved): If the exposure limit is exceeded, a half-face dust/mist respirator may be worn for up to ten times the exposure limit or the maximum use concentration specified by the appropriate regulatory agency or respirator supplier, whichever is lowest. A full-face piece dust/mist respirator may be worn up to 50 times the exposure limit, or the maximum use concentration specified by the appropriate regulatory agency, or respirator supplier, whichever is lowest. For emergencies or instances where the exposure levels are not known, use a full-facepiece positive-pressure, air-supplied respirator. WARNING: Air-purifying respirators do not protect workers in oxygen-deficient atmospheres.
Skin Protection: If dealing with Potassium Fluoride, wear impervious protective clothing, including boots, gloves, lab coat, apron or coveralls, as appropriate, to prevent skin contact.
Eye Protection: If contact with Potassium Fluoride, use chemical safety goggles and/or full face shield where dusting or splashing of solutions is possible. Maintain eye wash fountain and quick-drench facilities in work area.
In addition, if in the event of a fire, wear full protective clothing and NIOSH-approved self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece operated in the pressure demand or other positive pressure mode.

5). Descriptors of Structure of Potassium Fluoride
(1)SMILES:[F-].[K+]
(2)Std. InChI:InChI=1S/FH.K/h1H;/q;+1/p-1
(3)Std. InChIKey:NROKBHXJSPEDAR-UHFFFAOYSA-M

6). Toxicity Information of Potassium Fluoride

Organism Test Type Route Reported Dose (Normalized Dose) Effect Source
frog LDLo subcutaneous 420mg/kg (420mg/kg) Comptes Rendus des Seances de la Societe de Biologie et de Ses Filiales. Vol. 124, Pg. 133, 1937.
guinea pig LDLo oral 250mg/kg (250mg/kg) "Merck Index; an Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals", 11th ed., Rahway, NJ 07065, Merck & Co., Inc. 1989Vol. 11, Pg. 1214, 1989.
mouse LD50 intraperitoneal 40030ug/kg (40.03mg/kg) Deutsche Zahnaerztliche Zeitschrift. Vol. 34, Pg. 484, 1979.
rat LD50 intraperitoneal 64mg/kg (64mg/kg) U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, University of Rochester, Research and Development Reports. Vol. UR-154, Pg. 1951,
frog LD50 oral 245mg/kg (245mg/kg) U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, University of Rochester, Research and Development Reports. Vol. UR-154, Pg. 1951,
Potassium fluoride Computational chemistry data
1. Calculation reference value of hydrophobic parameter (XlogP): no
2, hydrogen bond donor number: 0
3, the number of hydrogen bonding receptor: 1
4. Number of rotatable chemical bonds: 0
5, the number of variants: None
6, topological molecular polarity surface area (TPSA): 0
7, the number of heavy atoms: 2
8 surface charge: 0
9 complexity: 2
10 isotope number: 0
11. Determine the number of atomic centers: 0
12. The number of atoms in the center of the atom is determined: 0
13. Determine the number of chemical bond centers: 0
14. The number of chemical bond centers is not determined: 0
15. Unit number of covalent bonds: 2
Potassium fluoride Related compounds
Other anions
Potassium chloride
Potassium bromide
Potassium iodide
Potassium astatide
Other cations
Lithium fluoride
Sodium fluoride
Rubidium fluoride
Caesium fluoride
Francium fluoride

potassium fluoride solution Product Overview

Solvay Fluorides, LLC does not sell potassium fluoride solution (KF) directly to consumers.Most potassium fluoride solution is used in industrial applications and processes.

Potassium fluoride solution is used for pH adjustment in industrial textile processing facilities or laundries. It is also an intermediate or raw material used in other chemical synthesis or processes,

most often for agrichemical or pesticide products. Potassium fluoride is sold in an aqueous (water)solution.Potassium fluoride solution is corrosive and contact can severely irritate and burn the skin or eyes causing possible eye damage. Breathing potassium fluoride solution vapors can irritate and burn the nose, throat, and lungs. Chronic exposure to KF may cause nosebleeds, cough, wheezing and shortness of breath. When heated potassium fluoride solution releases hydrogen fluoride, a toxic,corrosive gas.

Inhalation or ingestion of large amounts of potassium fluoride solution can cause nausea, vomiting and loss of appetite. Exposure to high concentrations or long term exposure can cause fluoride poisoning with stomach pain, weakness, convulsions and death. Long term or repeated exposures can cause deposits of fluorides in bones and teeth, a condition called fluorosis. Fluorosis may cause pain, disability and discoloration of teeth. 

Product Uses

Potassium fluoride solution is used for pH adjustment in industrial textile processing facilities or laundries. It is also an intermediate or raw material used in other chemical synthesis or processes;most often for agrichemical or pesticide products.

Exposure Potential

Workplace Exposure - Potassium fluoride is corrosive and toxic by ingestion, inhalation or contact with skin and eyes. Exposures can occur at a potassium fluoride manufacturing facility or a manufacturing, packaging or storage facility that handles KF. Exposure may also occur in the event of a transportation incident. Persons involved in maintenance, sampling and testing activities, or in the loading and unloading of KF containers are at greater risk of exposure.

Following good industrial hygiene practices will minimize the likelihood of KF exposure;however, persons involved in higher risk activities should always wear proper personal

protective equipment such as rubber gloves and boots, goggles and a hard hat. In instances where the potential for splashes is high, a face shield should also be worn. 

Exposure limits for potassium bifluoride (per OSHA, ACGIH, and other agencies) are listed as the “fluoride” content rather than as KBF specifically. Please consult the Safety Data Sheet for information concerning exposure limits.

Consumer Exposure to Products Containing Potassium Fluoride Solution - Solvay Fluorides, LLC does not sell potassium fluoride solution directly to consumers although it may

be used in some consumer cleaning products. The user should use these products in strict  adherence with the manufacturer’s use and/or label instructions.

Environmental Releases - Spills of potassium fluoride solution should be contained and isolated from waterways and sewers or drains. The contaminated area should be washed down

with plenty of water. Lime or calcium hydroxide may be used to neutralize contaminated water and immobilize the fluoride ions as calcium fluoride. Disposal should be in accordance with applicable local, state or federal regulations. Persons attempting to clean up potassium fluoride solution spills should wear proper personal protective equipment (see guidelines in Workplace Exposure section of this document or Safety Data Sheet). If required, report spills to the appropriate state or federal authorities.Fires - Fires involving potassium fluoride solution should be extinguished using measures appropriate to the circumstances and surrounding environment. Hazardous decomposition

products such as hydrogen fluoride vapor can be generated if KF is involved in a fire. Fire  fighters should wear self-contained breathing apparatus and protective suits.

For additional information concerning potassium fluoride solution emergency response procedures,please consult the Safety Data Sheet.

Health Information

Concentrations of potassium fluoride solution typically found in consumer products may pose risk of symptoms due to skin, ingestion or inhalation exposure. Persons suffering from eye or ingestion exposure to consumer strength potassium fluoride solution products may experience symptoms similar to persons exposed to industrial strength potassium fluoride solution (see below).

Exposures to potassium fluoride solutions can produce the following adverse health affects:

Contact - Skin exposures can cause symptoms ranging from minor skin irritation to painful redness and swelling. Severe burns can occur if treatment is delayed after exposure to

potassium fluoride solution. Eye exposure to potassium fluoride solution may result in severe eye irritation, burns or even blindness.

Inhalation - The inhalation of potassium fluoride solution vapors can cause symptoms ranging from nose and throat irritation to coughing and difficulty breathing. Aspiration may cause

pulmonary edema (fluid on the lungs) and pneumonitis (inflammation of the lungs). Repeated or prolonged exposures may cause sore throat, nosebleeds and chronic bronchitis. Prolonged exposure may cause hypocalcemia (reduced calcium levels) with nervous problems (tetany)and cardiac arrhythmia (irregular heart beat) and /or spasms. 

Ingestion - The ingestion of potassium fluoride solution may cause burns of the mouth and throat and perforation of the esophagus and stomach. Nausea, bloody vomiting, abdominal

pain, diarrhea, difficulty breathing, swelling of the throat, loss of consciousness, coma and heartfailure can also occur.

Other Effects - The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not determined

sodium fluoride solution to be carcinogenic (cancer causing).For more information on health effects and routes of exposure, or for information concerning proper

first aid measures, please consult the Safety Data Sheet.

Environmental Information

Potassium fluoride solution is not known to bioaccumulate or persist in the environment for more  than a few days. For more ecological and environmental information concerning this product,

please consult the Safety Data Sheet.

Physical Hazard Information

Potassium fluoride solution is corrosive and can corrode some metals. It is not flammable or explosive.Exposure of potassium fluoride solution to strong acids, strong bases, metals, glass or high temperatures can cause decomposition. Decomposition of potassium fluoride solution will result in the liberation of hydrogen fluoride gas.

For more information concerning the physical hazards of this product, please consult the Safety Data Sheet.

Regulatory Information

potassium fluoride and  Sodium fluoride 
potassium fluoride and  Sodium fluoride is white crystal having a rock-salt structure. Sodium fluoride is indissolvable in water (100℃, 5g/100ml water), and potassium fluoride is hygroscopic, it is easily dissolved in water (at 18℃ of 92.3g /100g water). Potassium fluoride has dihydrate (mp41℃) and tetrahydrate (mp19.3℃).
Sodium fluoride and potassium fluoride is different with other alkali halide salts (such as sodium chloride), it is alkaline, addition reaction with hydrogen fluoride is easy and can generate acid salt.
Sodium fluoride and potassium fluoride can use sodium or potassium carbonate, respectively, it can be obtained by neutralization reaction with hydrofluoric acid by calculated amount, if the hydrofluoric acid is in excess, it will bring in acid salts (sodium acid NaHF2 acid or potassium fluoride KHF2).
K2CO3 + 2HF → 2KF + H2O + CO2 KF + HF → KHF2.
Sodium fluoride is prepared by reaction of sodium fluoride and sodium hydroxide solution in industry.
Na2SiF6 + 6NaOH → 6NaF + Na2SiO3 + 3H2O
Sodium fluoride is the most affordable of the alkali metal fluoride, it can be used as adsorbent of hydrogen fluoride in atomic energy industry and other aspects for it has the capable of forming an acid salt with hydrogen fluoride.
When potassium fluoride and sodium fluoride compares, it is more easily dissociated in various solvents. Due to it is ease to generate fluoride ions (F-) and therefore it can be used as the organic fluorinating agent, especially with the halogen exchange fluorination reagent.
RCl + KF → RF + KCl
And more recently for taking use of fluoride ions strongly bound with hydrogen ions, it can be used in organic reaction with potassium fluoride for gradually condensing agent use.
Potassium hydrogen fluoride
Potassium hydrogen fluoride is known as "potassium hydrogen fluoride", "acid potassium fluoride," "heavy potassium fluoride" it is hydrofluoric acid salt. Chemical formula is KHF2. Molecular weight is 78.11. It is colorless isometric system crystal, it is easy deliquescence. It is toxic! The relative density is 2.369g /cm3. It is easy soluble in water, it is soluble in potassium acetate, it is not soluble in ethanol. Aqueous solution is acidic, it is strongly corrosive for glass and ceramics. It can decompose when be heated to about 225℃. It can absorb moisture and release hydrogen fluoride in the humid air.
Method: It can be derived when potassium hydroxide or potassium carbonate react with sufficient amount hydrofluoric acid, or adds hydrofluoric acid into saturated solution of potassium fluoride, and controls the terminal pH 2 to 3.
Uses: Electrolysis of molten potassium hydrogen fluoride can obtain fluorine. It can be used for manufacturing fluoride and fluorine, carved glass, also used as masking agent, metallurgical flux, preservatives industry.

Regulations may exist that govern the manufacture, sale, export, import, storage, transportation,use and/or disposal of this chemical. These regulations can vary by city, state, country or geographic region. Information may be found by consulting the relevant Safety Data Sheet specific to your country or region. 

Xinxiang Yellow River Fine Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. is the largest manufacturer of Potassium Fluoride in the world. Xinxiang Yellow River produce the full series of Potassium Fluoride including spray dried KF, granular KF and KF solution.
Potassium fluoride is the chemical compound with formula KF [CAS: 7789-23-3]. KF is a crystalline powder with m.w. of 58.10, melting piont of 858℃, boiling point of 1505℃ and density of 2.481 g/cm3. KF is insolube in alcohol but have a good solubility in water. It absorbs moisture easily and shall be stored in sealed container. KF is the primary source of the fluoride ion for applications in chemical reactions. Aqueous solution of KF is alkaline and will etch glass. As a result, KF is a commen raw material for inorganic fluorine industry and can widely be used in the production of agrochemical and pharmaceutical intermediates. KF is also used as metal surface treatment products in electronic industry. In fluorine deficiency area, KF is added to the table salt as a kind of food additive. In addition, KF can be used in the production of flux products, and also used as preservative, catalyzer and water absorbing agent.
Our potassium fluoride is packaged with aluminum foil bag (20kg/bag) or cardboard drum (75kg/drum), or will be packed upon clients’ requests.

Effect of potassium fluoride on the micellar behavior of Pluronic F-68 in aqueous solution
The cloud point of Pluronic F68, a triblock copolymer of the type PEO/PPO/PEO with average composition EO78PO30EO78, is reduced by 50-degrees-C when 1.0 M KF is added to the aqueous solution. The aggregation properties are also affected. The size of the unimers and micelles in the solution, as estimated from diffusion coefficients, determined by dynamic light scattering and NMR self-diffusion measurements, or molecular weights from static light scattering, are similar with and without salt present, but the growth of the micelles starts at a lower temperature-25-degrees-C in 1.0 M KF, 44-degrees-C in water, values from extrapolation to zero concentration-and continues over a wider temperature range in the salt solution. The intrinsic viscosity indicates that the micelles are less compact-more solvated-than those formed by the more hydrophobic members of the Pluronics family but become less solvated with increasing temperature than PEO fractions of similar molecular weight.
Solventless Suzuki Coupling Reactions On Palladium-Doped Potassium Fluoride­ Alumina
A solventless Suzuki coupling reaction has been developed which utilizes a commercially available potassium fluoride alumina mixture and palladium powder. The new reaction is convenient, environmentally friendly, and generates good yields of the coupled products. Aryl iodides react faster than the bromides or chlorides; aryl groups are also more reactive than alkenyl groups, which react faster than alkyl groups. The use of microwave irradiation accelerates the reaction, decreasing reaction times from hours to minutes. The palladium powder catalyst can be recycled using a simple filtration and washing sequence without loss of catalytic activity.
Solventless Suzuki Coupling Reactions On Palladium-Doped Potassium Fluoride­ Alumina.
The main application industry of anhydrous potassium fluoride
Anhydrous potassium fluoride is widely used in medicine, pesticides, and other industries have a lot of fuel can be used to replace other halogen aromatic ring to synthesize intermediate fluoride agent, which is applied to the field of potassium fluoride greatly. As fluoride, potassium fluoride in alkaline catalyst in organic synthesis, for the metallurgical industry is made of tantalum additives, also used for brazing flux production of silver, aluminum and other alloys, because potassium fluoride removal effect of oxide film, but also in the use of metal rust agent, complexing agent, glass etching liquid, adhesive, help solvent, analytical reagent etc.. Anhydrous potassium fluoride can also be used as an absorbent to absorb hydrogen fluoride and water, and for the synthesis of other potassium salts. Used for the production of potassium fluoride and sodium fluoroacetate fluoroacetamide pesticides, but the pesticide was banned because of security issues.
The most important use of potassium fluoride is to produce fluorine containing intermediates. Mainly used for medicine, pesticide, dye, liquid crystal and other intermediates, in which fluorine containing approximately 60% intermediates for synthesis of pharmaceuticals, 35% fluorine-containing intermediates for the synthesis of pesticides, dyes, liquid crystal and other intermediate consumption accounted for only 5%. Potassium fluoride as fluorinating agent, mainly used for other halogen atom replacement on the aromatic ring, so its downstream products are mainly for the one or two and three fluorine substituted benzene derivatives, pyridine derivatives, fluorine fluorine biphenyl derivatives of aromatic compounds. It is estimated that in 2011, China's pharmaceutical and pesticide intermediates in the field of consumption of anhydrous potassium fluoride more than 40 thousand tons, is expected by 2015 will increase to more than 50 thousand tons, this part of the product consumption is high activity anhydrous potassium fluoride.
Potassium fluoride second application fields is flux, flux is mainly silver solder and aluminum solder, because the fluorine ion complexation of metal ions such as aluminum oxide film removal effect, and can prevent re oxidation and wet surface, enhanced capillary action. China solder industry is an industry with excess capacity. As far as silver brazing filler, brazing flux and brazing flux of aluminium are concerned, the output in recent years has little change. At present, there are more than 40 production enterprises for welding flux, which consumes about 6000 tons of potassium fluoride annually.
Potassium fluoride is also used to tantalum niobium industry in tantalum wet extraction from ores when (sometimes using potassium chloride), using hydrofluoric acid leaching ore production fluorotantalate precipitate, potassium fluorotantalate by alkali neutralization with potassium fluoride or potassium chloride cold crystallization, can also be directly neutralized with potassium hydroxide precipitation. The amount of tantalum in the world is about 2000 tons per year, and the output of our country accounts for 1/3 of the total. This industry consumes potassium fluoride at 1000-2000 tons per year.
In addition, potassium fluoride is used in metal rust agent, complexing agent, glass etching liquid, binder, solvent and so on, because the actual effect is fluoride potassium fluoride solution, the general can also be made of other more fluoride instead of cheap.
Application range and safety precautions of potassium fluoride for industrial use
Industrial anhydrous potassium fluoride in organic synthesis as alkaline catalyst, the flux is in the metallurgical industry, related work can also be completed derusting agent and complexing agent, with high activity, low dosage, the use scope is wide, but the product also has a certain toxicity, when used to in strict accordance with the operation process to use and control.
Health hazards: the product itself has a neutral poison, very high irritation, mucous membranes, upper respiratory tract, eyes, skin tissue has a very strong destructive effect. After inhalation can be due to inflammation of the throat and bronchi, edema, convulsions, chemical pneumonia, pulmonary edema and death. The poisoning was manifested by burning sensation, coughing, wheezing, laryngitis, shortness of breath, headache, nausea and vomiting.
Potassium fluoride in industry is irritating, and its toxicity can seriously damage mucous membranes, skin and so on. It should be dealt with according to specific pollution. Skin contact: remove contaminated clothing immediately and rinse with plenty of flowing water for at least 15 minutes. Medical treatment. Eye contact: lift your eyelids immediately and rinse thoroughly with plenty of flowing water or saline for at least 15 minutes. Medical treatment. Inhalation: quickly escape from the scene to the fresh air. Keep airway clear. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. If breathing stops, take artificial respiration immediately. Medical treatment. If swallowed, with plenty of water gargle, to drink milk or egg white, doctor.
The main difference between high activity anhydrous potassium fluoride and common anhydrous potassium fluoride
1. high activity anhydrous potassium fluoride has high purity and uniform particle size, and its specificity is high activity, high yield, low dosage and low yield in organic fluorination reaction. An expensive phase transfer catalyst that can be used in place of fluorination reactions.
2. high activity of anhydrous potassium fluoride and potassium fluoride is mainly in the way of making the proportion of different results also have different proportion of the former is about 0.3 to about 1.2 as the latter is the former better reagent
3. high activity potassium fluoride generally refers to the spray drying of potassium fluoride, its particle radius is small, the specific surface area is large, whether in terms of kinetics, reactivity, or thermodynamic stability is higher than ordinary potassium fluoride many orders of magnitude.
4. high active potassium fluoride specific surface area of 13 square meters of ordinary /g; potassium fluoride specific surface area between 0.04-0.13 meters /g.
Why is potassium fluoride, Kg, more stable than the elements potassium and fluoride that comprise it? 
Best Answer:  potassium fluoride kf is more stable as a compound is formed to attain stability , bond formation takes place only if the new compound is more stable or if an excess of energy is given
potassium has 1 valence electron and it needs to loose it so that it attains noble gas config
fluorine has 7 valence electron and needs 1 to attain noble gas config so k looses one and f gains one to form kf
Why sodium or potassium fluoride used an alcohol blood test?
Best Answer:  If you are talking about Potassium Fluoride, it is an agent that helps prevent foreign things from growing within the blood sample.
Separately, Sodium Fluoride and Potassium Oxalate do little, but together they inhibit the breakdown of glucose in the blood. In this mixture, Potassium Oxalate acts as the anticoagulant. This, in essence, preserves the blood to be able to test at a later time. 
Bromine and aqueous potassium fluoride, reaction? 
Best Answer:  Bromine(Br) is less electronegative than Fluorine(F). Hence Br can not take up elctrons from F. Thus no reaction occurs between Bromine(Br2) and Potassium Fluoride(KF).
This is because in Br2 ( liquid) bromine is in zero oxidation state and in KF, F is in -1 oxidation state. 
What is the balanced formula for the compound potassium fluoride and how did you come up with it ? 
Best Answer: 
Ok, first what do we know?
We know that we have a compound containing two elements, potassium and flourine.
If you look to the first period (vertical column) on the periodic table, you see that potassium (K) has a +1 charge.
Now, look to the element flourine. We see it has a -1 charge. The overall compound must be neutral, since it's not an ion. So we put the two together and get KF.
Now, look at the charge: the K brings a +1, the F brings a -1
Add them up, +1 - 1 = 0
So the final formula is: KF
-- 
if you had asked about Calcium chloride, it would have been CaCl2
Why? Calcium brings in a +2 charge, while chlorine brings in a -1.
In order for the overall charge to be 0, we need 2 chlorine atoms.
+2 -(1*2) = 0
Why does calcium sulfide have a higher melting point that potassium fluoride? 
Best Answer:  Because calcium sulfide, CaS, have a charge value of 2 and in potassium fluoride, KF, a charge value of 1Ca 2+ and S 2-K 1+ and F 1-
A higher charge value means a stronger attraction between the ions and therefore a higher melting point which is 2525 deg Celsius for CaS and 870 deg Celsius for KF. 
Difference between Stannous fluoride and Potassium Nitrate?
 Best Answer:  I'm sorry to hear about your sensitive teeth.
Let me answer your questions.
1. Stannous fluoride does not repair enamel but it incorporates into the enamel and changes it from hydroxyapatite to fluoroapatite which is more resistant to acid damage from the bacteria in dental plaque and it IS recommended topically to help prevent cavities. The closest thing to repairing enamel is that it may help remineralize decalcified enamel.
2. Potassium nitrate has no effect on repairing enamel or caries prevention. It is recommended as a topical desensitizer for sensitive teeth.
3. A tooth with worn down enamel can be repaired with other materials such as with fillings or crowns. Once the enamel is gone, you don't get it back.
4. For sensitive teeth you need to use a toothpaste labeled for sensitive teeth, and I would choose one that has potassium nitrate, not stannous fluoride.
Also, you need to apply the toothpaste at least 4 or more times each day if you want it to be effective. I know the instructions say twice a day, but twice is not effective.
Sensodyne is the best known brand, but there are many others with the same ingredient. Just pick one with a flavor you can tolerate. 
Effect of potassium fluoride on the micellar behavior of Pluronic F-68 in aqueous solution
The cloud point of Pluronic F68, a triblock copolymer of the type PEO/PPO/PEO with average composition EO78PO30EO78, is reduced by 50-degrees-C when 1.0 M KF is added to the aqueous solution. The aggregation properties are also affected. The size of the unimers and micelles in the solution, as estimated from diffusion coefficients, determined by dynamic light scattering and NMR self-diffusion measurements, or molecular weights from static light scattering, are similar with and without salt present, but the growth of the micelles starts at a lower temperature-25-degrees-C in 1.0 M KF, 44-degrees-C in water, values from extrapolation to zero concentration-and continues over a wider temperature range in the salt solution. The intrinsic viscosity indicates that the micelles are less compact-more solvated-than those formed by the more hydrophobic members of the Pluronics family but become less solvated with increasing temperature than PEO fractions of similar molecular weight.
Effect of potassium fluoride on structure and corrosion resistance of plasma electrolytic oxidation films formed on AZ31 magnesium alloy
Plasma electrolytic oxidation films on AZ31 magnesium alloy were prepared in silicate-KOH-glycol (base electrolyte) electrolyte with the addition of different KF concentration. The effect of KF on the characteristic of discharge in electrolytes was studied. The compositions, structures and morphologies of the oxide films formed in different KF concentration were determined by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Corrosion behavior of the oxide films was evaluated in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution using potentiodynamic polarization tests, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic scanning tests. The films were mainly composed of Mg, Al, O, C, Si as well as a trace ofNa and K. Major phases were MgSi0
Microwave mediated palladium-catalysed reactions on potassium fluoride/alumina without use of solvent
Potassium fluoride on alumina was used in palladium-catalysed reactions (Suzuki, Heck, Stille, Trost–Tsuji) without solvent under mono-mode microwave irradiation. Some reactions took place in air. The organotin residue in the Stille reaction remained on the solid support.
Potassium fluoride on alumina was used in solventless palladium-catalyzed reactions (Suzuki, Heck, Stille, Trost–Tsuji) under mono-mode microwave irradiation. Some reactions took place in air. The organotin residue in the Stille reaction remained on the solid support.
Ion spatial distributions at the liquid-vapor interface of aqueous potassium fluoride solutions.
X-Ray photoemission spectroscopy operating under ambient pressure conditions is used to probe ion distributions throughout the interfacial region of a free-flowing aqueous liquid micro-jet of 6 M potassium fluoride. Varying the energy of the ejected photoelectrons by carrying out experiments as a function of X-ray wavelength measures the composition of the aqueous-vapor interfacial region at various depths. The F(-) to K(+) atomic ratio is equal to unity throughout the interfacial region to a depth of 2 nm. The experimental ion profiles are compared with the results of a classical molecular dynamics simulation of a 6 M aqueous KF solution employing polarizable potentials. The experimental results are in qualitative agreement with the simulations when integrated over an exponentially decaying probe depth characteristic of an APPES experiment. First principles molecular dynamics simulations have been used to calculate the potential of mean force for moving a fluoride anion across the air-water interface. The results show that the fluoride anion is repelled from the interface, consistent with the depletion of F(-) at the interface revealed by the APPES experiment and polarizable force field-based molecular dynamics simulation. Together, the APPES and MD simulation data provide a detailed description of the aqueous-vapor interface of alkali fluoride systems. This work offers the first direct observation of the ion distribution at an aqueous potassium fluoride solution interface. The current experimental results are compared to those previously obtained for saturated solutions of KBr and KI to underscore the strong difference in surface propensity between soft/large and hard/small halide ions in aqueous solution.
A ditopic fluorescent sensor for potassium fluoride
The addition of potassium fluoride ‘switches on’ the fluorescence of sensors1and2while potassium chloride and bromide cause no fluorescence change; the fluorescence can be ‘switched off’ by removing the potassium cation from the benzocrown ether receptors of sensors1and2through the addition of [2.2.2]-cryptand and restored by the addition of the potassium cation as potassium chloride.
Ion spatial distributions at the liquid-vapor interface of aqueous potassium fluoride solutions
X-Ray photoemission spectroscopy operating under ambient pressure conditions is used to probe ion distributions throughout the interfacial region of a free-flowing aqueous liquid micro-jet of 6 M potassium fluoride. Varying the energy of the ejected photoelectrons by carrying out experiments as a function of X-ray wavelength measures the composition of the aqueous–vapor interfacial region at various depths. The F61to K+atomic ratio is equal to unity throughout the interfacial region to a depth of 2 nm. The experimental ion profiles are compared with the results of a classical molecular dynamics simulation of a 6 M aqueous KF solution employing polarizable potentials. The experimental results are in qualitative agreement with the simulations when integrated over an exponentially decaying probe depth characteristic of an APPES experiment. First principles molecular dynamics simulations have been used to calculate the potential of mean force for moving a fluoride anion across the air–water interface. The results show that the fluoride anion is repelled from the interface, consistent with the depletion of F61at the interface revealed by the APPES experiment and polarizable force field-based molecular dynamics simulation. Together, the APPES and MD simulation data provide a detailed description of the aqueous–vapor interface of alkali fluoride systems. This work offers the first direct observation of the ion distribution at an aqueous potassium fluoride solution interface. The current experimental results are compared to those previously obtained for saturated solutions of KBr and KI to underscore the strong difference in surface propensity between soft/large and hard/small halide ions in aqueous solution.
Selective desilylation of ja:math -butyldimethylsilyl ethers of phenols using potassium fluoride-alumina and ultrasound
The use of potassium fluoride on basic alumina in acetonitrile with ultrasound for the selecting deprotection of ja:math -butyldimethylsilyl ethers of phenols is described. The method, which features a non-aqueous work-up, readily cleaves ja:math butyldimethylsilyl ethers of phenols at room temperature, whereas ja:math -butyldimethylsilyl ethers of benzyl alcohols or 2-(trimethylsilyl)ethoxymethyl ethers of phenols are stable.
Reaction of 3-(1-Arylsulfonylalkyl)-indoles with Easily Enolisable Derivatives Promoted by Potassium Fluoride on Basic Alumina
Active methylene compounds and nitro derivatives react with 3-(1-arylsulfonylalkyl)-indoles in the presence of potassium fluoride on basic alumina at room temperature leading to the corresponding adducts in good yields. Under basic conditions, sulfonylindoles suffer elimination of arenesulfinic acid leading to an intermediate vinylogous imine that promptly adds stabilized carbanions. The obtained 3-indolyl derivatives are pivotal intermediates for the synthesis of indole-based alkaloids and amino acids.
The Synthesis of Highly Fluorinated Compounds by Use of Potassium Fluoride in Polar Solvents
Abstract Fluorination of highly chlorinated compounds of three or more carbon atoms by the action of potassium fluoride in polar solvents - e.g., N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone - has been found to give fair to excellent yields of highly fluorinated products. Dechlorination and dehydrochlorination of the substrate appear to be first steps in the mechanism, often followed by addition of the elements of hydrogen fluoride, and finally replacement by fluorine of all but highly hindered chlorine atoms. For example, the three-carbon substrates octachloropropane, heptachloropropane, and hexachloropropane yield CF3CCl2CF3, CF3CHClCF3, and CF3CH2CF3, in mixtures of varying proportions that can be controlled to some degree by choice of conditions. Hexachlorobutadiene yields the new fluoro枚lefins cis- and trans-CF3CH=CFCF3. Cyclic compounds are particularly responsive to this technique - e.g., perfluorocyclopentene is obtained in high yield from perchlorocyclopentene.
Natural phosphate and potassium fluoride doped natural phosphate: efficient catalysts for the construction of a carbon–nitrogen bond
The application of natural phosphates doped with potassium fluoride as heterogeneous catalysts for the Michael addition of aromatic and aliphatic amines to α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds is presented. The natural phosphate catalyst can be regenerated and reused without loss of activity, which makes it an attractive alternative to homogeneous basic reagents. Doping natural phosphate with potassium fluoride significantly enhances the rate and yield of the reaction.
Process optimization for methyl ester production from waste cooking oil using activated carbon supported potassium fluoride
This paper presents the transesterification of waste cooking palm oil (WCO) using activated carbon supported potassium fluoride catalyst. A central composite rotatable design was used to optimize the effect of molar ratio of methanol to oil, reaction period, catalyst loading and reaction temperature on the transesterification process. The reactor was pressurized up to 10bar using nitrogen gas. All the variables were found to affect significantly the methyl ester yield where the most effective factors being the amount of catalyst and reaction temperature, followed by methanol to oil ratio. A quadratic polynomial equation was obtained for methyl ester yield by multiple regression analysis using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimum condition for transesterification of WCO to methyl ester was obtained at 3wt.% amount of catalyst, 175掳C temperature, 8.85 methanol to oil molar ratio and 1h reaction time. At the optimum condition, the predicted methyl ester yield was 83.00wt.%. The experimental value was well within the estimated value of the model. The catalyst showed good performance with a high yield of methyl ester and the separation of the catalyst from the liquid mixture is easy.
Potassium fluoride doped LaOFeAs multiband superconductors: Evidence for extremely high upper critical field
We describe a new methodology of synthesizing the oxypnictide superconductors with potassium fluoride as a source as a source of fluorine instead of LaF3. This route also allows the substitution of potassium at lanthanum sites which leads to an increase in the upper critical field as would be expected for a multiband superconductor. We also report the highest reported Tc onset of 28.5K and highest upper critical field in these superconductors.
Metal carbonyl anion generation using potassium fluoride or tetrabutylammonium fluorid
ABSTRACT Triiron dodecscarbonyl reacts with dry potessium fluoride and commercial 18-crown-6, in tetrahydrofuran, to give the hydridoundecacarbonyltriferrate anion. The latter is also efficiently produced from Fe 9(CO) 1z and a l M solution of tetrabutylammonium fluoride. The quarternary ammonium fluoride can catalyze the reduction of nitrobenzenes to anilines by either Fe 8(CO) 12 or Mn 2(CO) 10 While Co 2(CO) 6 and Co(CO) 3NO react with tetrabutylammonium fluoride, The resulting species are incapable of reducing nitrobenzene but can carbonylate 2-(bromomethyl)naphthalene
Enhancement of biodiesel synthesis from soybean oil by potassium fluoride modification of a calcium magnesium oxides catalyst.
Transesterification of soybean oil with methanol was carried out in the presence of CaO–MgO and KF-modified CaO–MgO catalysts at atmospheric pressure. While the methyl ester yield for the CaO–MgO catalyst with a ratio of 8:2 (CaO:MgO) was 63.6%, it was 97.9% for the KF-modified catalyst at a 2% catalyst to the reactants (methanol/oil mixture) weight ratio, a temperature of 65°C, a methanol–soybean oil ratio of 9:1 and a reaction time of 2.5h. The KF/CaO–MgO catalyst still yielded 86.7% after four successive uses. The catalytic performance of the KF/CaO–MgO catalyst was attributed to the formation of active KCaF3 and K2MgF4 centers.
Potassium fluoride stabilized ammonium nitrate and method of producing potassium fluoride stabilized ammonium nitrate
A phase stabilized ammonium nitrate mixed crystal structure is produced by the addition of potassium fluoride. Thus the undesirable abrupt expansion and contraction of ammonium nitrate in the temperature range of use in rocket motor propellants and explosives (-55° C. to λ° C.) is eliminated. The mixture is made by the addition of between about 3% to 5% and preferably about 3.5% by weight potassium fluoride to the ammonium nitrate by a nonhazardous aqueous method.
Influence of potassium fluoride on the syntheses of methylpiperazine-modified poly(vinyl chloride)s for use as fixed-site proton carrier membranes
Abstract Aminated poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membranes were prepared that had a Nernstian response over a wide range of pH. The reaction between PVC and methylpiperazine (MePIP) in dimethylformamide (DMF) was studied over a wide range of time and temperature, and in the presence of the catalyst, potassium fluoride (KF). Time, temperature, and KF increased the nitrogen (N) content of the resulting polymers, but sometimes at the expense of decreasing their specific viscosities (molecular weights). Activation energies of processes that occurred in different temperature ranges were estimated assuming an Arrhenius relationship. A Nernstian response occurred once the N content approached to about 0.3 w/w %, and was accelerated by the presence of KF at elevated temperatures. Increasing the N content above about 3% led to a loss of the Nernstian response either because of an increase in the double bond content and a subsequent decrease in polymer mobility, or because of a decrease in the molecular weight of the copolymer and concomitant difficulties in film preparation.
Elucidation of the role of potassium fluoride in the chemical and physical nature of ZSM-5 zeolite
This investigation synthesized the ZSM-5 zeolite using sodium silicate, aluminum sulfate and tetrapropylammonium bromide. In addition to examining how the KF additive affected the crystal structure, crystallinity, crystal size and crystal morphology by XRPD and SEM measurements, this work investigated how the KF additive affected the specific surface area, Al contents and zeolite framework through BET, ICP-MS, SIMS, 29 Si, 27 Al-MAS NMR and 29 Si, 27 Al-CP MAS NMR measurements. Experimental results indicated that adding an appropriate amount of KF did not affect the product yield, crystal structure, Al contents or the specific surface area of the synthesized ZSM-5 zeolite. However, adding KF slightly degraded the crystallinity of the product and significantly increased crystal size. High concentrations of KF additive also changed the morphology to a mixture of rod-type and strip-type single crystals. Furthermore, the KF additive could lead the non-framework six-coordinate Al species to transfer to the framework four-coordinate Al species in the synthetic process of ZSM-5 zeolite, and induced further defects in the zeolite framework, i.e., the Q 3 (0Al) and Q 3 (1Al) units belonging to the SiO (or SiOH) defect centers.
Natural Phosphate Doped with Potassium Fluoride:  Efficient Catalyst for the Construction of a Carbon−Carbon Bond
Natural phosphate-doped catalyst was found to be an efficient, environmentally attractive, and selective solid base catalyst for 1,4-Michael addition. The products of undesirable side reactions resulting from 1,2-adddition, polymerization, and bis-addition are not observed. The workup procedure is simplified by simple filtration with the use of natural phosphate alone or doped with potassium fluoride. Potassium fluoride-doped natural phosphate is used as catalyst for a facile synthesis of 4H-chromene under heterogeneous conditions. Clean one-pot synthesis of 1,2,4-oxadiazoles under solvent-free conditions using microwave irradiation and potassium fluoride as catalyst and solid support Potassium fluoride was found to be an efficient catalyst and solid support for the synthesis of 3,5-disubstituted-1,2,4-oxadiazoles. In this work, a one-pot method for the synthesis of these compounds from the reaction of nitriles with hydroxylamine hydrochloride and acyl chloride in the presence of potassium fluoride under solvent-free conditions using microwave irradiation has been developed. The advantages of using potassium fluoride as a solid support in comparison to conventional solid supports are simple operation and convenient separation of the products.
Potassium fluoride stabilized ammonium nitrate
The undesirable abrupt expansion and contraction of ammonium nitrate in the temperature range of use of a rocket motor and explosives (-55° C. to 80° C.) is eliminated by the addition of 0.5 to 2% by weight of a crystal growth inhibitor, specifically potassium fluoride (KF).
Urinary Fluoride Excretion in Children Using Potassium Fluoride Containing Salt or Sodium Fluoride Supplements
With the introduction of fluoridated domestic salt in France in 1986, questions have arisen with respect to its efficacy in caries prevention. It has been of interest to compare the urinary excretion of fluoride in children who consume fluoridated salt to that in children who take fluoride tablets. Ninety-three schoolchildren, 10-14 years of age, participated in the study and were divided into four groups: group I consumed fluoridated salt with every meal; group II ate at a school restaurant once a day and consequently consumed fluoridated salt at only their evening meal, as fluoridated salt is not authorized for use in collective restaurants; group III consisted of children taking fluoride tablets (1.0 mg F/day) exclusively, and group IV did not receive any systemic administration of fluoride for prevention and constituted a low-fluoride control group. Total 24-hour urine samples were collected from all subjects. The average daily urinary flow rates varied from 0.51 to 0.68 ml/min, but showed no statistically significant differences among the groups. The average urinary fluoride concentrations were 0.60, 0.30, 0.99, and 0.28 mg/l, respectively, for groups I-IV. The mean 24-hour urinary fluoride concentrations and excretion rates for children who consumed fluoridated salt at all meals (group I) were not statistically different from those using tables (group III). There were also no statistically significant differences between groups II and IV. The differences between urinary fluoride concentrations and excretion rates of groups I and III, as compared with group IV, were statistically significant.
Corrosion Resistance of Plasma-Anodized AZ91 Mg Alloy in the Electrolyte with/without Potassium Fluoride
Plasma Electrolyte Oxidation (PEO) behavior of AZ91 Mg alloy was investigated in the electrolytes with/without potassium fluoride. Growth rate of coating thickness in the electrolyte containing potassium fluoride (Bath B) was much higher than that in the electrolyte without potassium fluoride (Bath A). The oxide layer formed on AZ91 Mg alloy in electrolyte with potassium fluoride and sodium silicate consisted of MgO, MgF
Improved Throughput of PatchXpress hERG Assay Using Intracellular Potassium Fluoride
Blockade of the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) potassium channel, with a consequent possibility of QT prolongation and increased susceptibility to a characteristic polymorphic ventricular arrhythmia, torsade de pointes, is an important cause of withdrawal of drugs from the market. In the aftermath of recent drug withdrawals, regulatory agencies now require in vitro hERG screening of all pharmaceutical compounds that are targeted for human use. To minimize the potential for failure in later-stage drug development, many pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies have begun to use automated patch clamp systems with higher throughput than conventional manual patch-clamp techniques to conduct routine functional hERG screening during drug discovery and early development. We have optimized an automated patch-clamp hERG screening method for the PatchXpress 7000A system (Molecular Devices, Sunnyvale, CA) using potassium fluoride (KF) in the internal recording solution. In this study we show that (1) the biophysical and pharmacological properties of hERG current recorded with KF are similar to those with standard potassium chloride solutions, (2) use of KF significantly improves the success rate of hERG screening using PatchXpress without compromising data quality, and (3) utilization of KF can significantly increase the throughput of hERG screening with PatchXpress.
A Microscopic Description of Concentrated Potassium Fluoride Aqueous Solutions by Molecular Dynamics Simulation
We describe the microscopic structure and dynamical properties of potassium fluoride aqueous solutions at T = 298 K as a function of concentration up to 11.9 M. All calculations are made using constant temperature and pressure as well as microcanonical molecular dynamics simulations on the basis of an optimized pair potential model which is a mix of Coulomb plus standard Lennard-Jones short-range terms for water and ion61water interactions and Tosi-Fumi potential for ion61ion interactions. In particular we propose a modified ion61water interaction that successfully reproduces the experimental behavior of the density and water self-diffusion of the solutions as a function of concentration. Finally, we analyze hydrogen-bonding in solutions looking at pair distribution energies and residence times. We find strong evidence for K+61F- pairing in solutions at the higher concentrations.
Transesterification catalyzed by industrial waste—Lime mud doped with potassium fluoride and the kinetic calculation
Lime mud (LM), a solid waste from paper mill, is doped with potassium fluoride to prepare heterogeneous base transesterification catalyst. The catalyst is characterized by Hammett indicator method, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experimental results show that the basic strength of catalyst is the main reason for high catalytic activity. After doped with 2002wt.% KF and activated at 60002°C (KF/LM-600), the effects of catalyst addition percentage, molar ratio of methanol to oil, transesterification time, and transesterification temperature are concerned to examine the catalytic activity of KF/LM-600 and the reusability of KF/LM-600 is also investigated. Oil conversion of 99.09% could be achieved with catalyst addition percentage 502wt.%, molar ratio of methanol to oil 12, transesterification time 202h and transesterification temperature 6402°C. Furthermore, the kinetic parameters of transesterification catalyzed by KF/LM-600 are calculated.
Thermal ion emission from potassium fluoride deposited on a substrate-metal surface
Thermal emission rates of K + and F - ions from thick potassium fluoride layers on a metal substrate were measured alternately as a function of the sample temperature (670–990 K) or the extracting voltage (0–500 V) in ultra-high vacuum (≈ 3 × 10 -9 Torr). In the course of an induction period, a gradual decrease of isothermal ion currents with time and ion accumulation at the sample surface during application of the retarding electrical field against either ions were observed prior to attaining a steady-state ion emission. The results thus obtained were discussed in light of (1) the terrace-ledge-kink model of vaporization, (2) the morphological development on alkali halide surface and (3) the concept of surface charge in ionic crystals. The activation energies for the desorption of K + and F - ions, changing from about 2.6 to 2.2 eV and from 2.2 to 2.8 eV, respectively, with increasing temperature, were derived from the respective slopes of Arrhenius plots. The ion emission rates were analyzed on the basis of a theoretically deduced equation of ion emission, thereby elucidating the influence of the surface electrical potential and the relative importance of surface kinks to the ion emission. The non-stoichiometry in kink-site occupancy by cations and anions, favoring the emission of K + , was demonstrated to be of defect-related origin.
POTASSIUM FLUORIDE DISPERSION SOLUTION, AND PROCESS FOR PRODUCTION OF FLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUND USING THE SAME
A potassium fluoride dispersion essentially consisting of potassium fluoride and an aprotic organic solvent having a boiling point higher than that of methanol, which is obtainable by mixing a mixture containing potassium fluoride and 5 to 50 parts by weight of methanol per 1 part by weight of potassium fluoride with the aprotic organic solvent followed by concentrating the obtained mixture, and a process for producing a fluorine-containing organic compound comprising contacting an organic compound having at least one group capable of being substituted nucleophilically with a fluorine atom with the potassium fluoride dispersion.
Preparation of fluoroaromatic compounds in dispersion of potassium fluoride
An improved process is disclosed for preparing fluoroaromatic compounds (such as fluoronitrobenzene compounds) wherein chloroaromatic compounds (such as chloronitrobenzene compounds) are reacted with potassium fluoride in a solvent dispersion thereof prepared from a mixture including the solvent, the fluoride, methanol and an aromatic compound.
Crystal growth and characterization of γ-glycine grown from potassium fluoride for photonic applications.
Abstract Single crystals of γ-glycine, an organic nonlinear optical material have been synthesized in the presence of potassium fluoride (KF) by slow evaporation technique at ambient temperature. The size of the grown crystal is up to the dimension of 12 mm×10 mm×8 mm. The γ-phase was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction, powder XRD and the FTIR analysis. Optical absorption spectrum reveals that the grown crystal has good optical transparency in the entire visible region with an energy band gap of 5.09 eV, which is an essential requirement for a nonlinear optical crystal. Thermal stability of the grown γ-glycine crystal was determined using the thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analyses. The NLO activity of γ-glycine was confirmed by the Kurtz powder technique using Nd:YAG laser and the grown crystal exhibits high relative conversion efficiency when compared to potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP). Copyright 08 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
An Environmentally Benign and Practical Synthesis of Sugar Orthoesters Promoted by Potassium Fluoride
An extremely practical method for synthesis of sugar orthoesters has been developed without using any organic amines or heavy metals as additives. Various sugar orthoesters were prepared in good yields by the reaction of an acylated glycosyl bromide and an alcohol in the presence of potassium fluoride. Michael addition of nitromethane to 3-buten-2-one catalyzed by potassium fluoride supported on Al 2 O 3 , ZnO, SnO 2 , sepiolite, AlPO 4 , AlPO 4 −Al 2 O 3 and AlPO 4 −ZnO The Michael addition of nitromethane to 3-buten-2-one has been carried out in the absence of solvent, using potassium fluoride supported on Al 2 O 3 , ZnO, SnO 2 , sepiolite, AlPO 4 , AlPO 4 61Al 2 O 3 and AlPO 4 61ZnO catalysts. We found that KF/ZnO easily performed the Michael addition and thus, ZnO is a better support for the basic reagent than Al 2 O 3 . Besides, the Michael addition was not successful with AlPO 4 or AlPO 4 -metal oxide acidic supports.
Anomalous reimer-tiemann reaction from phenol, chloroform and potassium fluoride in sulfolane
Abstract Top of page Abstract ChemInform Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option. Synthesis of bromodifluoromethyl-substituted alkenes. Potassium fluoride supported on alumina as a dehydrobrominating agent
Potassium fluoride supported on alumina is an efficient dehydrobrominating agent. 1,3-Dibromo-1,1-difluoroalkanes — adducts of dibromodifluoromethane and alkenes — give bromodifluoromethyl-substituted alkenes 2 on dehydrobromination with this agent in good to excellent yields. Alkenes 2 were a mixture of Z - and E -isomers, with the former predominating. Functional groups such as ester, carbonyl, ethylenic and chloromethyl are not affected under such reaction conditions
The electron momentum distribution in solid potassium fluoride, studied by compton scattering
The Compton scattering of 59.54 keV -radiation by potassium fluoride powder has been investigated with samples of three different thicknesses. Using an annular radiation source of 241Am in connection with an appropriate conical beam collimation, a scattering angle of as high as 177 could be achieved thus minimizing systematical errors. From published theoretical data on multiple scattering, an empirical function for the extrapolation to zero sample thickness has been derived and employed to come to the true Compton profile as close as possible. The result is compared with theoretical Compton profiles calculated from wavefunctions of the free atoms and ions K, F, K+, F-, K-, F+ (E. Clementi 1964, 1965) and of the ions K+ and F- in Watson spheres of opposite charge (E. Paschalis, Al. Weiss 1969). In the comparison the theoretical profile of K+ F- with overlap (T. Paakkari et al. 1974) is also included. The solid-state effect on the electron momentum distribution is discussed.
Translated Die Compton-Streuung von 59.54-keV--Strahlung durch Kaliumfluorid ist mit Pulverproben dreier verschiedener Schichtdicken untersucht worden. Eine ringfrmige Strahlungsquelle von 241Am und entsprechende konische Strahlausblendung haben es gestattet, einen Streuwinkel von 177 and somit geringste systematische Fehler zu erreichen. Mit Hilfe einer aus ver ffentlichten theoretischen Mehrfachstreuungsdaten hergeleiteten empirischen Funktion sind die erhaltenen Compton-Profile auf Schichtdicke Null extrapoliert worden, um Mehrfachstreuungseffekte so gut wie mglich zu eliminierten. Das Ergebnis wird mit theoretischen Profilen verglichen, die einerseits aus Wellenfunktionen der freien Atome und Ionen K, F, K2, F-,K- und F+ (E. Clementi 1964, 1965), andererseits aus Wellenfunktionen der Ionen K+ und F- in Watson-Kugeln entgegengesetzter Ladung (E. Paschalis, Al. Weiss 1969) berechnet worden sind.Das theoretische Compton-Profil von K+F- mit berlappung der Wellenfunktionen der freien Ionen (T. Paakkari et al. 1974) wird auch zum Vergleich herangezogen. Der Festk枚rpereffekt auf die Impulsverteilung der Elektronen wird diskutiert.
Inhibition of microbial growth, study of solution stability, growth and characterization of potassium fluoride mixed l -arginine phosphate single crystals
In order to alleviate the major problem of microbial growth and colouration in l -arginine phosphate (LAP), the use of potassium fluoride (KF), a new additive having higher dipole moment, has been proposed. The stabilities of the pure and KF mixed LAP solution at different temperatures have been determined. Pure and KF mixed LAP crystals were grown by the temperature lowering technique. The presence of potassium in the crystal was identified by inductively coupled plasma analysis (ICP). The lattice parameters for the grown crystals were determined from X-ray powder diffraction. The molecular vibration and thermal behaviour of KF mixed LAP were found from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermal analysis (DTA &TGA) respectively.
BING-2: a layered tin–oxalate potassium fluoride, KSn(C 2 O 4 )F
The title compound, KSn(C 2 O 4 )F, is a two-dimensional material related to our previously reported three-dimensional framework, Na 4 Sn 4 (C 2 O 4 ) 3 F 6 . Both are alkali-metal tin–oxalate materials, but here the compound is layered and has potassium in place of sodium. The material was synthesized solvothermally at 42361K and crystallized in the monoclinic space group P 2 1 / c . The structure consists of potassium fluoride layers in the bc plane, which are sandwiched on both sides by tin–oxalate chains that extend along the c axis.
Fluorination of 1,2,3,4- and 1,2,3,5-tetrahalobenzenes with potassium fluoride in dimethyl sulfone
1,2,3,4-Tetrachlorobenzene, 1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene, 2,4,6-trichlorofluorobenzene, and 2,6-dichloro-1,4-difluorobenzene were fluorinated with potassium fluoride and potassium fluoride-cesium fluoride mixtures in dimethyl sulfone. By varying the concentration, temperature and reaction time, the degree of fluorination could be controlled to some extent. The optimum conditions for producing mono-, di- and tri-fluoro-substituted chlorobenzenes and trace amounts of tetrafluorobenzene from the corresponding tetrachlorobenzenes are given. 1,2,3,5-Tetrafluorobenzene was obtained in 44.8% yield from 2,6-dichloro-1,4-difluorobenzene. 1,2,3,4-Tetrafluorobenzene was obtained in only trace amounts from 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene. A total of 24 new chlorofluorobenzenes and intermediates are described. Fluorination with potassium fluoride and certain other metal fluorides was also investigated.
A re-examination of exchangeable acidity as extracted by potassium chloride and potassium fluoride
In order to better understand some of the factors likely to affect measurements of KC1 extractable acidity, experiments were conducted using synthetic solutions and extracts from a wide range of contrasting soils. The reagents used for measuring exchangeable acidity (i.e., KC1 and KF) were also examined to evaluate the effects of chemical impurities on acidity measurements. Two commonly used titrimetric methods were adapted and tested to determine the accuracy and precision of acidity measurements. The exchangeable acidity of soil extracts was investigated by extraction methods, extractant concentration, and extractant volume. Results from the soil extract experiments indicated that continuous shaking has no significant effect on acidity measurements. Filtration, however, is critical, especially for acidic organic鈥恟ich soils, since aluminum (Al) ions can be lost during centrifugation. Extractant concentration and volume had variable effects on the acidity measurements for individual soils. In general, the modified Yuan's method is preferable to the modified Thomas鈥 method for estimating exchangeable Al. To ensure successful determination of exchangeable acidity, we recommend using a wider KCl:soil ratio (>15:1, v/w) for organic soils with low base saturation and allophanic Andisols. In sum, potassium chloride and potassium fluoride extraction for estimating exchangeable acidity is applicable for most soils
Potassium Fluoride on Alumina (KF/Al 2 O 3 )
(A) Sawyer et al. have demonstrated the use of $KF/Al_2O_3$ and 18- Crown-6 to synthesize diaryl ethers, diarylthio ethers, and diaryl amines via $S_NAr$ type addition reaction of phenol, thiophenol, and aniline to 2-fluorobenzonitrile respectively. The optimization of the above reaction conditions led to the synthesis of compounds, which were unachievable using Ullman coupling. For example, electronically unfavorable 3-chloro benzonitrile can be condensed with 3-methylphenol to give corresponding diaryl ether in 66% yields using $KF/Al_2O_3,$ 18-Crown-6 in DMSO at 140 °C. (B) Glaser coupling reactions to generate diacetylenes using $KF/ Al_2O_3$ with $CuCl_2$ and solvent free conditions under microwave irradiation have been optimized by Kabalka et al. The use of two different alkynes, however gives a mixture of products. (C) Silveira et al. have reported the use of $KF/Al_2O_3$ for the synthesis of 3,4-dihydroisoquinolines and isoquinolines by desulfonylation of N-sulfonyltetrahydroisoquinone derivatives. Microwave irradiation (490 W) of the solid-state reaction mixture containing the substrate and base for 10–20 s gives 3,4-dihydroisoquinoline, which on increasing the time leads to the formation of corresponding isoquinoline. (D) $KF/Al_2O_3$ selectively desilylates the tert-butyldimethylsilyl protected phenol at room temperature. Acetonitrile as the solvent eliminates the need for an aqueous work up and the use of ultrasound accelerates the reaction thereby reducing reaction times. (E) Selective O-demethylation of arylalkyl ethers has also been accomplished using $KF/Al_2O_3$ and dry ethylene glycol in 3–5 h at 210–215 °C in moderate to high yields.
Investigation of Potassium Fluoride Supported on Alumina in the Deboronation of o-Carborane 
An investigation of the use of KF/alumina for the deboronation of o-carborane is described. The percentage of deboronation of o-carborane in acetonitrile, glyme, and tetrahydrofurn under a variety of reaction conditions has been determined. Complete deboronation is accomplished when wet refluxing acetonitrile is employed as the solvent. High yields of [P(C6H5)3CH3][nido-7,8-C2B9H12] have been obtained from the deboronation of o-carborane by the use of KF/alumina in wet acetonitrile.
The temporary covalence of potassium fluoride (in X-ray and Auger spectra processes) 
The similarity in ionisation energy of K+(3p) and of the second 2p electron from F– enables molecular orbitals to be formed between doubly ionised fluoride and the surrounding potassium ions in potassium fluoride; this transitory covalency causes peak splitting in Auger spectra, and attenuation of high-energy satellite intensity in X-ray spectra.
A Convenient Synthesis of 5-Arylidenethiazolidine-2,4-diones on Potassium Fluoride-Aluminum Oxide. 
Thalictrum is an important plant genus that is widely used in traditional medicine. In this review considerable attention has been given to triterpenoid saponins in connection with their specific distribution in the Thalictrum genus and with their biological activity All other non-alkaloid compounds isolated from the Thalictrum genus are also reviewed; these metabolites are discussed in relation to their structural features and to their role in the plantsA semi-molten mixture of hexadecyltributylphosphonium bromide and potassium fluoride in the synthesis of organofluorine compounds A facile and effective reagent system comprising of a semi-molten mixture of hexadecyltributylphosphonium bromide and potassium fluoride has been developed and its scope has been investigated in nucleophilic fluoride exchange with various organohalides. This simple and convenient reagent system provides organofluorine compounds in high yields even with haloesters in which fluoride catalysed elimination is also feasible.
Measurement and Correlation of Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium Data for Butanone-Water-Potassium Fluoride and Butanone-Water-Potassium Carbonate Systems 
The liquid liquid equilibrium data for two ternary systems,butanone water KF and buanone water K 2CO 3 were determined at 30℃.The mathematical calculation of the liquid liquid equilibrium data has been carried out using Pitzer theory and Wilson equation.The correlated and experimental results are in good agreement.The basic data for separating butanone water system using salts in industry have been provided.
Potassium fluoride impregnated CaO/NiO: an efficient heterogeneous catalyst for transesterification of waste cottonseed oil
Potassium fluoride impregnated CaO/NiO has been prepared by wet impregnation method in nano particle form as supported by powder XRD, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy studies. Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area and basic sites measurement studies have been performed to establish the effect of potassium fluoride impregnation on catalyst surface morphology and basic strength. CaO/NiO impregnated with 2065wt% potassium fluoride was used as solid catalyst for the transesterification of waste cottonseed oil having up to 5.865wt% free fatty acid content. The variables used for the transesterification were, KF impregnated on CaO/NiO, 
catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, and methanol to oil molar ratio. Reaction parameters have been optimized to achieve the least reaction period for the completion of the reaction. Complete transesterification (>99% FAMEs yield) of waste cottonseed oil with methanol (1:15 molar ratio) required 465h in the presence of 565wt% catalyst (with respect to oil) at 65°C. Reusability study suggests that catalyst could be recycled for four successive runs without significant loss in activity. A pseudo first order kinetic equation was applied to evaluate the kinetic parameters and under optimized conditions first order rate constant and activation energy was found to be 0.02365min611 and 41.265kJ/mol, respectively. Few physicochemical properties of the prepared biodiesel sample have also been studied and compared with standard values.Practical applications: In India, application of edible vegetable oils for biodiesel production is prohibited to avoid food versus fuel situation. Application of waste cottonseed oil (WCO) for biodiesel production could circumvent this problem. However, homogeneous alkali catalyst could not be employed due to the presence of high free fatty acid contents in such feedstock. In this context present study demonstrates the impregnation preparation of KF impregnated CaO/NiO and its application as reusable solid catalyst for the transesterification of WCO.
Potassium fluoride: A convenient, non-covalent support for the immobilization of organocatalysts through strong hydrogen bonds
The development of potassium fluoride as a practical non-covalent support for a carboxylic acid containing a pyrrolidine substituent with organocatalytic activity in the asymmetric Michael addition is described. The immobilization is carried out by simply treating the catalytic ligand in dichloromethane (DCM) solution with non-anhydrous potassium fluoride (KF). XRD and FTIR results suggest that the organocatalyst is efficiently loaded onto KF through strong hydrogen bond (SHB) formation, affording the KF-supported catalyst (KF-supCAT, 8) for the direct asymmetric Michael addition of carbonyl compounds to trans-β-nitrostyrenes. Good yields, excellent diastereoselectivities (up to 99:1 syn:anti) and excellent enantioselectivities (up to 97% ee for the syn diastereomer) are recorded in the Michael additions of cyclohexanone to trans-β-nitrostyrenes, considerably improving previous results obtained with a closely related catalyst covalently immobilized onto polystyrene. The KF-supCAT could be recovered and recycled three times by increasing the supersaturation degree of the solution.
Permeability of human dental enamel to acriflavine and potassium fluoride
Permeability of human dental enamel was studied by following the penetration of acriflavine and potassium fluoride when applied to the surface of the teeth either in vitro or in vivo. Using ultraviolet microscopy to follow the penetration of acriflavine, and the increased resistance to acid etching to follow fluoride penetration, the results indicate that the prism boundary is the permeable structure of enamel. Acriflavine diffuses more rapidly into enamel than potassium fluoride, and both diffuse more rapidly in vivo than in vitro. Application of a concentrated fluoride solution to the surface of the enamel in vivo produced an acid-resistant layer that was similar in etching pattern to a natural maturation. This finding may have clinical application in caries prevention.
Crystal structure of beta-lead fluoride doped potassium fluoride and ionic conduction
Structural studies and ionic conductivity measurements have been carried out on a single crystal of β-Pb 0.9 K 0.1 F 1.9 , which was synthesized using a dry method. The crystal is cubic: a ==5.941 (1) 03, space group, Fm3m, z =4. The structure was refined to R =0.025 by least-square methods, using 83 unique observed reflections. The conductivity of this material is σT =1.4 (S cm 611 K) at 300 K and the activation energy 0.24 eV. From these results it appears that the fluorine vacancies may be considered to be predominant mobile species in the extrinsic region. The phase is one of the best fluorine ion conductors.
The electron momentum distribution in solid potassium fluoride, studied by compton scattering
The Compton scattering of 59.54 keV -radiation by potassium fluoride powder has been investigated with samples of three different thicknesses. Using an annular radiation source of 241Am in connection with an appropriate conical beam collimation, a scattering angle of as high as 177 could be achieved thus minimizing systematical errors. From published theoretical data on multiple scattering, an empirical function for the extrapolation to zero sample thickness has been derived and employed to come to the true Compton profile as close as possible. The result is compared with theoretical Compton profiles calculated from wavefunctions of the free atoms and ions K, F, K+, F-, K-, F+ (E. Clementi 1964, 1965) and of the ions K+ and F- in Watson spheres of opposite charge (E. Paschalis, Al. Weiss 1969). In the comparison the theoretical profile of K+ F- with overlap (T. Paakkari et al. 1974) is also included. The solid-state effect on the electron momentum distribution is discussed.
Translated Die Compton-Streuung von 59.54-keV--Strahlung durch Kaliumfluorid ist mit Pulverproben dreier verschiedener Schichtdicken untersucht worden. Eine ringfrmige Strahlungsquelle von 241Am und entsprechende konische Strahlausblendung haben es gestattet, einen Streuwinkel von 177 und somit geringste systematische Fehler zu erreichen. Mit Hilfe einer aus ver枚ffentlichten theoretischen Mehrfachstreuungsdaten hergeleiteten empirischen Funktion sind die erhaltenen Compton-Profile auf Schichtdicke Null extrapoliert worden, um Mehrfachstreuungseffekte so gut wie mglich zu eliminierten. Das Ergebnis wird mit theoretischen Profilen verglichen, die einerseits aus Wellenfunktionen der freien Atome und Ionen K, F, K2, F-,K- und F+ (E. Clementi 1964, 1965), andererseits aus Wellenfunktionen der Ionen K+ und F- in Watson-Kugeln entgegengesetzter Ladung (E. Paschalis, Al. Weiss 1969) berechnet worden sind.Das theoretische Compton-Profil von K+F- mit berlappung der Wellenfunktionen der freien Ionen (T. Paakkari et al. 1974) wird auch zum Vergleich herangezogen. Der Festkrpereffekt auf die Impulsverteilung der Elektronen wird diskutiert.
The adsorption of potassium bromide from constant ionic strength solutions of potassium bromide and potassium fluoride
The adsorption of KBr from xM KBr+(161 x ) M KF at the mercury-aqueous solution interface has been investigated. The necessary data were obtained from the differential capacity curves and streaming electrode potentials for ten solutions. The adsorption of KBr from KBr+KF is similar to that for KCl from KCl+KF if the data in the same range of specifically adsorbed charge are compared. The results at larger values of specifically adsorbed charge have not to our knowledge been previously observed for halide systems.
Diffusion of aqueous hydrofluoric acid and aqueous potassium fluoride
A conductimetric technique has been used to determine binary diffusion coefficients of aqueous hydrofluoric acid and aqueous potassium fluoride at 25°C. Measurements were made at concentrations from 0.001 to 0.1 mol dm 613. In dilute solutions ionization of HF molecules to F 61 and highly mobile H + (HF 64 F 61 + H +) leads to a rapid increase in the overall rate of diffusion of the HF component. Provided the association equilibrium HF + F 61 64 HF 61 2 is included in the analysis, the results are in good agreement with behaviour predicted by theory for diffusion of incompletely dissociated electrolytes. The limiting diffusion coefficient of the HF molecule, 1.68 (±0.02) × 10 619 m 2 s 611, has been determined. Contrary to an earlier report, diffusion of dilute KF solutions is correctly described by Onsager-Fuoss theory.
Synthesis of biodiesel using potassium fluoride (KF) supported by hydrotalcite and process optimization by Box–Behnken design
Biodiesel has been developed using a heterogeneous catalyst potassium fluoride (KF) supported on hydrotalcite (HT) and waste frying oil (WFO) as feedstock. Hydrotalcite was synthesized by co-precipitation method using mixture of Mg(NO 3 ) 2 ·6H 2 O and Al(NO 3 ) 2 ·9H 2 O slowly added to a solution containing NaOH and Na 2 CO 3 and calcined at 50002°C. KF was impregnated on hydrotalcite at KF/HT load ratio of 80:100 by addition of a small amount of water. Biodiesel was developed using KF/HT as heterogeneous catalyst by transesterification. Box–Behnken Design using Minitab 15.1 Statistical Software and Design-Expert (Demo version 8.0.6.1) software were used as statistical tool for design of experiments and optimization of fatty acid methyl ester yield. A high yield and conversion of biodiesel was obtained by optimization of variables affecting the reaction. The variables affected the reaction in the priority order of: catalyst amount65>>65molar ratio (methanol to oil)65>65reaction time. A 12:1 methanol to WFO molar ratio, 2.502wt.% of catalyst at 6002°C in 102h reaction time gave a high fatty acid methyl ester yield of >9802%. The quantitative analysis of the product (i.e., biodiesel) was done on a Fourier-transform-nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer.
Optimized and functionalized paper sludge activated with potassium fluoride for single and binary adsorption of reactive dyes
The yield and adsorption uptake of optimized paper sludge activated carbon (PSAC) prepared using potassium fluoride as alternative chemical activation agent was investigated. The PSAC was functionalized with ethylenediamine (FPSAC) and both adsorbents were used for single and binary adsorption of Reactive orange 16 (RO16) and Reactive blue 19 (RB19). Effect of pH on the adsorption process, equilibrium, kinetics, isotherm and thermodynamic studies were carried out. Optimum PSAC preparation parameters were: activation temperature, X1=810C; activation time, X2=105min; and impregnation ratio, X3=0.95 which gave adsorption uptake of 178 and 158mg/g for RO16 and RB19, respectively.
Molecular beam study of steric effects in the reaction potassium + hydrogen fluoride (v = 1, j = 2) .fwdarw. potassium fluoride + hydrogen atom
ABSTRACT The effect of potassium depletion on renal Na/sup +/K/sup +/-ATPase was studied in rats. K depletion produced a striking, time-dependent increase in Na/sup +/-K/sup +/-ATPase activity of the outer medullary collecting tubules (inner stripe; MCT/sub is/). After 3 wk on the K-free diet, when the urine was almost potassium-free, Na/sup +/-K/sup +/-ATPase activity in MCT/sub is/ was over fourfold higher than in control animals. Repletion of potassium restored enzyme activity to base line within 7 days which corresponds to the catabolic rate of the renal enzyme, suggesting the cessation of enhanced synthesis that took place during K deprivation. Changes in Na/sup +/-K/sup +/-ATPase activity and aldosterone levels during both K depletion and repletion occurred in opposite directions and were therefore independent of each other. Ouabain binding to intact MCT/sub is/, reflecting the number of pump sites on the basolateral membrane, was similar in K-depleted and control animals; in contrast, tubule permeabilization that exposes additional pump units to the ligand, unmasked a nearly fourfold increase in ouabain binding in K-depleted rats, comparable to the increment in Na/sup +/-K/sup +/-ATPase activity. These results show that K depletion leads to a marked increase in Na/sup +/-K/sup +/-ATPase activity of MCT/sub is/, and suggest that the new enzyme units are located at a ouabain-inaccessible site in the intact tubule, i.e., either in an intracellular compartment or at the luminal membrane, where they may be involved in potassium reabsorption.
Potassium fluoride for the promotion of β-cyclodextrin-induced regioselective PO(3′) cleavage of adenosine 2′, 3′-cyclic phosphate
Abstract Both the regioselectivity and the reaction rate for the β-cyclodextrin (β-CyD)-induced P–O(3′) cleavage of adenosine 2′, 3′-cyclic phosphate (A > p) to adenosine 2′-phosphate are greatly promoted by KF. The promoting activity of KF is much larger than that of KCl. KF amplifies the difference in the chemical circumstance between the P–O(2′) and the P–O(3′) bonds of A > p, induced by β-CyD on complex formation with A > p. The higher activity of KF is ascribed to absence of complex formation of F 61 ion with β-CyD, which results in deeper penetration of A > p into the cavity of β-CyD.
Storage and leak emergency treatment of potassium fluoride Risk overview and first aid measures of potassium fluoride Applications of Potassium Fluoride Physical properties and chemical properties of potassium fluoride Physical properties and chemical properties of potassium fluoride Study on Catalytic Synthesis of Furan Acrylic Acid by Potassium Fluoride/ Potassium Carbonate/ Aluminum Oxide by Ultrasonic Irradiation Study on Purification and Removal of Potassium Fluoride by Dehydration of Wet - process Phosphoric Acid Study on preparation of anhydrous potassium fluoride from liquid phase fluoride in wet - process phosphoric acid Study on Preparation of High Purity Potassium Fluoride by Fluorosilicic Acid The preparation of single and double pulse ceramic membranes is mainly carried out in the electrolyte system of potassium fluoride as main salt Potassium fluoride is less corrosive to the reaction than hydrogen fluoride Production of High Purity Potassium Fluoride by Hydrofluoric Acid Residue Effect of the amount of Potassium Fluoride on the Yield of Fluorobenzaldehyde A Separation Method of Potassium Chloride and Potassium Fluoride Catalytic Organic Chemistry Reaction of Potassium Fluoride Supported on Alumina Activating Mechanism of Calculating Fly Ash with Potassium Fluoride as Auxiliary Preparation of Methanesulfonyl Fluoride CH3SO2F by Separation of the material after the reaction of Methylsulfonyl Chloride and Potassium Fluoride Synthesis of Fluoroisoquinoline with Potassium Fluoride as Fluorine Source Potassium fluoride solution The tert-butanol-water system can be successfully separated with potassium fluoride or potassium carbonate Activated Carbon Supported RbNO-Potassium Fluoride Catalysts A potassium fluoride fluorination reaction apparatus equipped with distillation drying device Study on the Synthesis of Potassium Fluoride by Fluoride Ammonium Preparation of TiB Inert Cathodic for Aluminum Electrolysis by Electrodeposition in Potassium Fluoride System Effect of Potassium Fluoride Solubilization on Dissolution Rate of Alumina in Fly Ash Treatment of potassium fluoride without water The surface area of anhydrous potassium fluoride prepared by azeotropic and microwave drying is much larger than that of prepared by ordinary calcination method Potassium carbonate, potassium fluoride and potassium hydroxide mixed electrolyte Dose response and damage threshold and lethal concentration of potassium fluoride in different plants A production process of potassium fluoride A catalyst for supporting potassium fluoride Experimental Study on the Genotoxicity of Potassium Fluoride and High Fluorine Tea Cells A solid dispersion of potassium fluoride Synthesis of Potassium Fluoride with High Efficiency Sterilization and Disinfectant Method for recovering ammonia and potassium fluoride from ammonium fluoride solution Study on the Effect of Potassium Fluoride on the Synthesis of Ruthenium - based Ammonia

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