Potassium fluoride,anhydrous
           Potassium fluoride,extra pure
           Potassium fluoride,Granular
           Silicon Dioxide
           Hydrofluoric acid
           Synthetic Cryolite
           Potassium Fluoaluminate
           Ammonium bifluoride
           Potassium Bifluoride
           Aluminium fluoride
           Sodium fluoride
           Fluorosilicic Acid
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The wide industrial use of hydrofluoric acid(HF) poses a high risk for accidental dermal exposure. Despite local and systemic hazards associated with hydrofluoric acid (HF), information on percutaneous penetration and tissue damage is rare. In the present ex vivo study, the dermal absorption of hydrofluoric acid (HF) (detected in terms of fluoride ions) was quantified and the skin damaging potential as a function of concentration and exposure duration was assessed. 

Percutaneous penetration of  hydrofluoric acid (HF) (c = 5, 30, and 50%) at 3 exposure durations (3, 5, and 10 min) was investigated in a static diffusion cell model using freshly excised human skin. Alterations of skin were histologically evaluated. hydrofluoric acid (HF) rapidly penetrated through skin under formation of a considerable intradermal reservoir ( 13–67% of total absorbed fluoride). Histologically, epidermal alterations were detected already after exposure to 5% hydrofluoric acid (HF) for 3 min. The degree of skin damage increased with rising concentration and exposure duration leading to coagulation necrosis. For hydrofluoric acid (HF) concentrations of 30%, skin damage progressed into deeper skin layers. Topically applied hydrofluoric acid (HF) concentration was the principal parameter determining hydrofluoric acid (HF) induced skin effects. The intradermal hydrofluoric acid (HF) retention capacity associated with progression and prolongation of hydrofluoric acid (HF) induced skin effects must be considered in the review of skin decontamination procedures.

Dermal contact to acidic solutions might cause skin irritation and corrosion of varying severity and occasionally permanent damage. Characteristic for hydrofluoric acid (HF, CAS 7664-39-3) is the combination of the local acidic corrosiveness and the concurrent local as well as systemic toxicity. Due to this dual mode of action particular caution is warranted in dealing with hydrofluoric acid (HF).

Primarily, Hhydrofluoric acid (HF) is used in the chemical industry, e.g. in the manufacture of fluorocarbons and fluoropolymers. The petrochemical industry needs aqueous solution of hydrogen fluoride as a catalyst in the fuel production. The etching properties of hydrofluoric acid (HF) are widely used in the semiconductor device fabrication and other fields of electronic as well as glass and metalworking industries. To a small extent, low concentrated hydrofluoric acid (HF)  is also being used in commercial products, e.g. pesticides, rust remover or aluminium cleanser. In 2012, the production of hydrofluoric acid (HF) in Europe amounted to 240,000 tons with more than 50,000 workers involved in the fluoride industry. Despite enormous efforts in the area of occupational health and safety, the rise in production and use of hydrofluoric acid (HF) increases the risk of accidental exposure, mainly by dermal contact or inhalation. Occupational exposure limits for hydrogen fluoride and other fluoride-containing compounds focus on respective air concentrations and do not incorporate a potential dermal route of uptake for the lipophilic hydrofluoric acid (HF). However, dermal exposure and uptake of fluoride contributes to the internal burden and therefore to the extent of health effects caused by hydrofluoric acid (HF). Furthermore, accidental exposure to hydrofluoric acid (HF) usually involves the skin resulting in dermal fluoride uptake. According to the Taiwan Poison Control Center, 80% of 324 workplace-related incidents between 1991 and 2010 associated with hydrofluoric acid (HF) have been caused by dermal contact .